All COVID-19 vaccines are developing, trying to produce immunity. The SARS-coV-2 (corona virus) virus by stimulating an antigen’s immune response. Usually the characteristic spike protein found on the virus’s surface.
WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE
Some legendary vaccines accomplish this by transforming the corona virus to weaken or disable it. When introducing to the body and the new response can generate to the antigen without the virus causing disease. When the immune system comes into contact with the weakened virus, its defences such as antibodies and T cells attack the virus or infected cells. In the process, specialised memory cells take notes of the specific antigen and prime the immune system to produce cells and antibodies that will quickly target these proteins. Hence, the next time that person will expose to the same virus, the immune system is ready to fight it off.
PROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINE
Instead of using the whole virus, another way to trigger immunity involves using just fragments like the spike proteins. These subunit vaccines have the advantage of being relatively easy and cheap to produce. They are incapable of causing disease because these fragments are not able to infect host cells. However, they are less likely to recognise by immune cells aiming at attacking infected cells, which means they may trigger. A weaker immune response because of this subunit vaccines often include chemical agents called adjutants which are design to stimulate a more robust immune response and booster shots may also be required.
Not all vaccines are created to introduce antigens to the body. Some perform by using cells in a patient’s body to create the antigens themselves. Examples include viral vector vaccines and M RNA vaccines. In both cases, the goal is to get short fragments of genetic code taken from the target pathogen in this case. The size cover two viruses that cause COVID-19 into the patient cells by hijacking the cellular mechanisms. These kinds of vaccines mimic the way viruses are commonly reproduced during natural infection, but rather than creating copies of the virus, the cells only produce large amounts of antigen but usually trigger a robust immune response.
VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE
Viral vector vaccines achieve this by inserting the genetic code for the antigen into a harmless virus which effectively acts as a delivery system to get the code into the cells without inducing disease vector-based vaccines can be difficult to produce. Still, they can trigger robust immune responses without the requirement for adjutants. In theory, one kind of vector can be used to deliver code for various antigens, which can speed up vaccine development.
NUCLEIC ACID VACCINE
Nucleic acid vaccines like em RNA and DNA vaccines also involved inserting genetic code into cells to produce antigens. Instead of using viruses to deliver the code, these vaccines take a more direct approach that consists of inserting the codes directly into cells by attaching them to a molecule or forcing them into cells using a gene gun. These vaccines can be fast and cheap to produce. Still, they are a comparatively new technology with numbers of COVID-19 vaccines now in development. A mixture of multiple methods will likely be needed to prevent this coronavirus’s global spread and end the pandemic.